### Volume 7

n° 1 (2005), pp. 313-400author: | Charles Knessl and Wojciech Szpankowski |
---|---|

title: | Enumeration of Binary Trees and Universal Types |

keywords: | Binary trees, types, Lempel-Ziv'78, path length |

abstract: | Binary unlabeled ordered trees (further called binary trees) were studied at least since Euler, who enumerated them.
The number of such trees with n nodes is now known as the Catalan number.
Over the years various interesting questions about the statistics
of such trees were investigated (e.g., height and path length
distributions for a randomly selected tree). Binary
trees find an abundance of applications in computer science.
However, recently Seroussi posed a new and interesting problem motivated by
information theory considerations:
how many binary trees of a given path length (sum of depths) are there?
This question arose in the study of universal types of sequences.
Two sequences of length p have the same universal type
if they generate the same set of phrases in the incremental parsing
of the Lempel-Ziv'78 scheme since one proves that such sequences
converge to the same empirical distribution.
It turns out that the number of distinct types of sequences of length p
corresponds to the number of binary (unlabeled and ordered) trees, T ,
of given path length p p (and also the number of distinct
Lempel-Ziv'78 parsings of length p sequences).
We first show that the number of binary trees with given path length
p is asymptotically equal to
T . Then
we establish various limiting distributions for the number of nodes
(number of phrases in the Lempel-Ziv'78 scheme)
when a tree is selected randomly among all trees of given
path length p ~ 22p/(log 2 p)(1+O(log -2/3 p))p .
Throughout, we use methods of analytic algorithmics such as
generating functions and complex asymptotics, as well as
methods of applied mathematics such as the WKB method and matched
asymptotics. |

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reference: | Charles Knessl and Wojciech Szpankowski (2005),
Enumeration of Binary Trees and Universal Types,
Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 7, pp. 313-400 |

bibtex: | For a corresponding BibTeX entry, please consider our BibTeX-file. |

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